Late Modernism and Alternatives, 1972–2001
A worsening problem, with a clear impact on architecture, was an economy that was slipping deeper into recession in the 1970s, fueled by President Johnson's determination that the nation could have both "guns and butter." The cavalier myopia of International Modernist architecture with regard to the consumption of energy was just one of its shortcomings that began to be addressed at the close of the twentieth century. There were other events that revealed the flaws, not only in Modernism as an architectural style but in the basic structure of modern American culture with its absolute faith in the capacity of technology to isolate and solve all social problems. After the Second World War, this national scope of activity was further formalized by an Act of Congress in 1949 authorizing the creation of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, a federally chartered though privately funded organization, enrolling members nationally.