Appropriation and Innovation, 1820–1865
The cultural authority of the patrician Federalist and Virginian aristocracies began to wane, they were replaced by the more homespun values associated with the popular western folk hero Andrew Jackson, elected president in 1828. The increasing tendency during this period was for architects to use correct historical details in their buildings. In some instances—especially with Greek-inspired buildings–the result was to virtually duplicate specific source buildings, resulting in, quite literally, a Greek Revival. States grew in population, and the number of representatives increased, they needed new quarters; in any case, new state images needed to be created. Haviland designed several of the earliest Greek Revival churches, including the First Presbyterian Church, Boston, 1820–1822; and St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, 1822–1824. Another of his innovations was the use of precast panels of cast iron for the façade of his Miner's Bank, in Pottsville,.