chapter  8
24 Pages

Food: From Farm to Fork

ByMichael Carolan

Few things are as obviously social and ecological as food and agriculture. One of the more consequential innovations in agriculture over the past two hundred years has been the substitution of capital for labor—known widely as the mechanical revolution. Highly visible subject is agriculture-related hypoxia. Hypoxia refers to a state where oxygen concentrations in a body of water fall below the level necessary to sustain most animal life. Aquaculture has undergone many of the same structural changes as agriculture. There is a large, rich body of literature looking at the impact of industrial agriculture on communities. It is important to clarify that industrial agriculture in this tradition often goes beyond the size of an operation by also incorporating indicators of farm organization. A consequence of being caught on the agricultural treadmill is the continual pressure to adopt the latest technologies and inputs while at the same time increasing the size of one's farming operation.