The last chapter discussed the Jewish Zionist warfare in 1948 that led to the conquest of two-thirds of Palestine and the expulsion (and flight) of the great majority of its people from their homeland. Israel nearly succeeded in creating what the Zionists had long claimed in their ideological mantra: Palestine as a land without people (the Palestinian Arabs) for a people (European Jews) without a land. Nonetheless, despite all their plans and efforts to empty the Palestinians from Palestine, an estimated 150,000 to 180,000 Palestinians, comprising approximately 18 percent of the population of the newly declared state of Israel, remained on their land after the cease-fire agreements between the Arab states and Israel were signed. Israel thus gained control of the majority of Palestinian land but also found itself in control of a Palestinian population, now a minority among a majority of Jews, principally concentrated in the Galilean hills, especially the central and western parts, with another segment, principally bedouins, in the south. This chapter analyzes the structure, transformation, and dynamics of the Palestinian minority in Israel from 1948 to the present.