The policies pursued by Pakistan's leaders are as important as the various constitutional forms of government the country has had. This chapter traces the policies of Pakistan's most important leaders and the effects of these policies on state institutions. The system of government established by Ayub relied greatly on Pakistan's civilian bureaucrats. One of the main targets of Bhutto's restructuring was the civil bureaucracy. Those who anticipated rapid change under Pakistan's first democratically elected government since 1977 were disappointed by Benazir's initial term in office. First, Benazir's government was unable to restore the 1973 constitution; nor did it rescind the Eighth Amendment. Second, the PPP-led National Assembly passed no new legislative bills during its tenure; in fact, only ten bills, all minor amendments to existing legislation, passed the assembly. Asif Ali Zardari also inherited Pakistan's very complicated and troublesome foreign policy dilemmas as well.