State Institutions and Changing Political Dynamics
This chapter shows that the balance of power has shifted among India's state organizations, political parties, and political institutions, such as the judiciary, the parliament, and national and regional political parties; however, the constitution continues to function as the framework for India's state apparatus. The Indian constitution provides for a federal system of government, with a division of powers between the national and the state governments. The government in India is headed by the president, the executive by the prime minister, and the judiciary by the Supreme Court; the parliament is entrusted with the exercise of legislative power. The real executive of the country comprises the prime minister and the cabinet. The prime minister is selected by the president of India. In reality, the president invites the leader of the majority party in parliament to form the council of ministers. Of the two houses of parliament, the Lok Sabha is far more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.