Black environmental activism is linked to feelings of deprivation—community residents equate their condition with institutionalized discrimination. This growing sense of environmental inequity contributes to the endorsement by many black community residents of collective actions that are closely aligned with the social justice movement. Respondents from Houston's Northwood Manor neighborhood and the West Dallas neighborhood rated pollution of lakes and streams as one of the most severe environmental problems encountered by local residents. The sentiments of environmental discrimination, disparate treatment, and deprivation were strongest among the Houston, Alsen, and Emelle residents. The application of economic trade-offs in mitigating siting disputes and environmental conflict continues to generate a wide range of discussion. Very little is known about the linkages between pollution levels and black environmental activism or about the factors that propel or impede black mobilization against environmental threats.