This chapter summarizes the major findings on people-of-color environmentalism and delineate some action strategies that are needed to enhance the environmental justice movement and environmentalism in the twenty-first century. Environmentalists may be concerned about clean air but may have opposing views on public transportation, highway construction, industrial-facility siting, or the construction of low-income housing in white, middle-class suburban neighborhoods. Grassroots groups in communities of color are beginning to take a stand against threatened plant closure and job loss as a trade-off for environmental risks. These threats are tantamount to economic extortion. The impetus behind this change included grassroots activism, redefinition of environmentalism as a "right", research documenting disparities, national conferences and symposia, emphasis on pollution and disease prevention, government initiatives, interpretation of existing laws and mandates, and grassroots alliances and coalitions. The war against environmental racism and environmental injustice has been waged largely by people of color who are indigenous to the communities.