chapter  11
30 Pages

Plasma Turbulence

ByS. Ichimaru

The plasma may be either strongly or weakly turbulent, depending on, among other things, the ability of the external source to feed energy to the plasma turbulence. In most cases, the plasmas found in nature are significantly far from thermodynamic equilibrium. A collective mode may even become unstable in some cases; the fluctuations are then greatly enhanced over the thermal level. The plasma may eventually go over to a state of turbulence. The enhanced fluctuations are expected to affect drastically the rates of relaxation processes; the so-called anomalous transport of physical quantities may take place in such a plasma. The resulting state may be either weakly or strongly turbulent, depending on the deviation of the plasma from equilibrium. Various transport processes in the plasma are greatly affected by the presence of plasma turbulence.