chapter  11
9 Pages

Transforming Old into New

ByAlain Touraine

The tragedy of revolutionary movements is that many of the democrats who become involved with them are transformed into leaders of authoritarian regimes or become actively involved in such regimes. The relationship between religion and democracy is always complex, even contradictory. The most serious threat to democracy stems from the depiction of society as a system of absolute domination that is not content with exploiting and excluding the dominated but also deprives them of their consciousness or instills a false consciousness. In 1960s and the 1970s had a dominant influence in both Latin America and Europe, has usually weakened social actors and has always had a negative effect on democratic ideas, which are violently rejected or scorned as petit-bourgeois reformist ideas. It is because most popular and national liberation movements were transformed into dictatorships, which rapidly became repressive apparatuses and obstacles to development, that people expect democracy to be a better manager of change and to reduce inequalities.