The discreteness of matter
The discreteness of matter is the only natural limitation on the possibility of using thermodynamic approaches. The effects of the discreteness of matter are most clearly seen in the case of adsorption, which, in the absence of fluctuation effects, fairly well describes the main factors of adsorption systems: surface non-uniformity and lateral interactions between adsorbed molecules . But in the transition to ultradispersed particles, the existing theory should be supplemented by taking into account the equilibrium fluctuations and analyzing their influence on all the molecular characteristics of real surfaces. Traditionally in thermodynamics solid adsorbents are considered as homogenized objects. For this reason, all the results of [8-10] refer to small uniform systems. The actual non-uniformity of solid particles is well known  (see Section 1).