chapter  43
5 Pages

Non-equilibrium thermodynamic functions

Formally, by analogy with situations for which Gibbs introduced passive forces, the same forces can be associated with metastable states in vapour-liquid systems, as well as for many situations with deformation effects of active phases in solid-phase systems (such as films, membranes, catalysts, nanocomposites, etc. of a wide variety of materials, including polymeric ones).