The analysis of soil penetration represents a challenging class of geotechnical problems due to large deformations, high gradients of the field variables (stresses, strains, pore pressures, etc.) around the penetrometer, the various drainage conditions and complex constitutive behavior of soils. Most prior research using large deformation Finite Element (FE) methods has been limited to simplified assumptions on drainage conditions and constitutive behavior. Following earlier work by Hu & Randolph (1998), we propose a finite element analysis procedure using automated remeshing and solution mapping within a commercial FE solver (ABAQUS Standard) in order to simulate quasi-static piezocone penetration using advanced effective stress soil models. Predictions of piezocone penetration using the proposed FE analyses are evaluated through comparison with undrained steady state analytical solutions obtained from the Strain Path Method and with field measurements from Boston. Predictions of partially drained penetration are compared with recently published 2-phase MPM analyses and with data from laboratory (1g and centrifuge) model tests in kaolin.