This chapter gives an overview of the geotechnical problems in various regions/countries of the world, and a general description of the need for ground improvement. For example, in Southeast Asia, the common geotechnical problems are those associated with construction with soft clays, organic soils and peat. While in the arid region of the Middle East, problems are generally associated with the desert (dry) soils. In the Unites States, the problems are associated with organic soils, expansive and collapsing soils, and shale. Laterite and lateritic soils are specially problematic in Mexico. Similarly, in the European Union, for example, the geotechnical problems are associated with loess (France), and organic soil (Germany). Soil maps for various regions of the world are also included. A table showing various methods of ground improvement has been provided that may help the design/site engineer in selecting the best available method.