Earthworks and field compaction
In general, all civil engineering constructions will involve earthwork to begin with, in the form of site clearing, cutting, filling and compaction. Existing soil on site may not be suitable to support structures such as buildings, roads or embankments that are going to be built on it. In its simplest form, soils on site can be improved/compacted to improve their shear strength. In cases where the in situ soils are deemed unsuitable, they need to be removed and replaced with better quality imported soils. This imported soil however also needs to be properly compacted to enable it to support the structure load. In this chapter, field compaction using equipment such as smooth wheel rollers, sheep foot rollers and pneumatic rubber tire rollers has been described. These methods are commonly used in construction of road bases and sub-bases. A general principle of compaction and field compaction, including laboratory methods, is dealt with in this chapter, along with field specification and control.