Aggregation of Luminophores
With the increasing research interest in the aggregation of luminophores, not only has the understanding of the mechanism advanced greatly, but the development of new luminophores has also significantly progressed. From small molecules to macromolecules, from organic to inorganic or metallic-organic, the variety of luminophores has maintained a continual growth. In this chapter, examples of aggregation of luminophores are illustrated. Initially, aggregation of luminophores in supramolecular systems such as macrocycles, metallocages, dendrimers, supramolecular Polymers, metal-rganic frameworks (MOFs) is described. Macrocyclic sensors are here referred to as barrel-shaped compounds with a cavity. Due to this cavity, its size and hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, that these macrocyclic sensors are able to accommodate multiple guest molecules within the cavity, which is fascinating for sensing in numerous ways. In macrocyclic sensors, examples of luminescent cyclophanes, cyclodextrins (CDs), and calix[n]arenes are discussed. Next, examples of luminescent fluorophores such as Short oligomers, conjugated polymers, small molecule luminophores, bio-inspired luminophores, and Acyclic structure with dyes is elucidated with interesting aspects of the aggregation process or its potential applications. Finally, conclusions and future scope are presented and discussed.