Urban Deer Introduction
Deer represent both a benefit and a problem for humans. The benefits can be tangible. Deer are hoofed grazing or browsing mammals, with branched bony antlers that are shed annually and typically borne only by the male. Urban sprawl causes extensive habitat changes, resulting from different levels of human influence, i.e., invasion, on the natural habitat. Several statements, addressing the contemporary relevance of the development of the first book on urban deer, address its practical value in contemporary literature. Any discussion of urban deer needs to set the record straight regarding “invasive species.” The term applies to an introduced species that can sustain self-replacing populations over several life cycles, produce reproductive offspring, and have the potential to spread over long distances, causing measurable detrimental economic, human health, and habitat effects. Since the 1980s urban deer research emphases were repetitive and focused primarily on population control and human perceptions.