Interaction Between Soil Particles and Soil Solution
Intermolecular and electrostatic interactions exist between soil solution and soil particles. To achieve generality, clay minerals which possess electric charges, and which are the most active part of soils, are selected as typical soil particles. As the specific surface area of a soil particle increases, the amount of water and solutes that interact with the soil particles increases; in other words, the soil becomes more active. Distribution of electrical potential near the edge surface must be known to understand modes of particle association when a suspension of montmorillonite flocculates. The unfrozen water films between ice and soil particles have an equilibrium thickness that decreases with decreasing temperature. The adsorption force theories are based on the importance of film water surrounding soil particles along the freezing front in causing frost heaving.