Sampling Arthropods in Livestock Management Systems
A North American livestock industries are diverse and of high value, consisting of very different animals and industries: beef cattle are raised for calves, meat, and leather; dairy animals for milk and veal; swine for pork; poultry for eggs and meat; and sheep for meat and wool. R. C. Axtell classifies livestock production systems as pasture or range, outdoor confined, and indoor confined. Detailed descriptions of the biology, taxonomy, host range, and management of livestock pests are available and should be consulted before starting a sampling program. Thresholds for many parasites in livestock production systems remain to be studied. Techniques for sampling arthropods in livestock systems have been previously summarized. Various livestock pests have free-living stages or periods in their life cycle. A diversity of domestic animals and management systems constitute livestock industries in Canada and the US As in other agricultural sectors, a variety of sampling approaches have been used to achieve management and research objectives.