Load-holding capacity of a single pile
The load-holding capacity of a pile is made up of the forces of resistance to contact shear along the skin surface and to pressing under the lower end — the scheme for a bore pile with injected (grouted) base and skin surface. The principal dimensions can be distinguished: length of the pile; length of the non-injected section; length of the grouted section; pile’s diameter; diameter of the injected section; and (for piles with square section) side length. Soil failure at the lower end of the pile takes place in the conditions of internal bulge. The formation of the bulge area is preceded by compaction deformation of soil and the possible remains of the slurry. The chapter considers the conditions of soil work under the lower end of the pile after the compaction deformations have been exhausted. As F. K. Lapshin points out, development of deformation zones under the lower ends of the piles upon their loading occurs, generally, sideways.