Applications to geotechnical engineering
This chapter presents a few applications of the critical state model and the sGÇ¦:t:e diagram to the analysis of practical problems in geotechnical engineering. First, a review of the most frequent stress paths, other than compression, is presented. Then, applications to the analysis of retaining walls, embankments, excavations and piles are reviewed. Stress paths can be classified according to the type of loading and its direction. Four main types are distinguished: axial compression, axial extension, lateral extension and lateral compression. Lateral compression simulates a soil element behind a retaining wall subjected to an external loading, which moves it against the backfill. This is the case of a retaining wall receiving an external horizontal load from a foundation. Finally, the chapter deals with the residual state, not covered by the critical state model.