Cyber Insecurity Is Growing
Organizations no longer build systems but instead primarily acquire the desired functionality. Systems-of-systems are increasingly composed of multi-vendor sourced data-driven software products with known defects contributing to unexpected operational behaviors. Developers and integrators in vendor and acquiring organizations assemble software components from many sources to build systems that motivate acquirers to implement the technology to address operational needs. It would take organizations too long and too much money to develop everything themselves. While some of the acquired software may be embedded directly into a system, most components are linked through application programming interfaces (APIs) and structured messaging protocols (e.g. TCP/IP) that leave each component operationally independent.