Emergence as a Macroscopic Feature in Man-Made Systems
A man-made system consists of many different components. Each component is modeled by an agent that simulates its functionality in a multi-agent system (MAS). The agent that performs the functionality of a component is described in the microscopic level with its inputs, states, actions, and outputs. On the other hand, the macroscopic level describes the entire system’s behavior and features. This chapter formulates the set of macroscopic-level features for a man-made system and the microscopic-level descriptions of a component in a system. The emergence is described or can be found using the set of macroscopic-level features. The labor market model and a case study from the Internet networking protocols are given as examples to explain how emergence can occur in man-made systems. The labor market model is used to provide the reader with a technique of how to formally express a model. The Internet networking protocol example is used to show the reader how to model and simulate a man-made system in DEVS formalism.