A Model-Based Approach to Investigate Emergent Behaviors in Systems of Systems
In this chapter, the authors propose the use of a behavior model within a Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) construct to evaluate emergent properties of a System of Systems (SoS). Emergent properties of an SoS occur due to the interactions of multiple systems when they are brought together. These properties enable significant advantages for designed systems including the potential for improved resiliency, performance, and distributed command and control structure. Enabling these benefits, however, also exposes the design and its architecture to potential negative effects. Therefore, the behavior model needs to be able to capture the essential aspects of the design within the architecture definition at a relatively high level of abstraction. The authors employed a model definition through the light-weight formal language of Monterey Phoenix (MP) and its interactive execution environment, the MP-Firebird Analyzer. Within MP, a behavior is comprised of a series of activities, each with a beginning and an end. These activities, or events, have fundamental interactions, articulated as inclusion, based on hierarchical relationships and precedence, based on temporal relationships.