Emergence in the Context of System of Systems
In this chapter, we seek to provide a detailed exploration of emergence within the context of SoS. There are five major elements of this exploration. First, we elaborate the nature of the SoS problem domain. This is essential to establish the context within which modern SoS must operate. Second, we capture the essence of the nature, characteristics, and function of a SoS. Every collection of systems is not an SoS. Third, we survey the phenomenon of emergence from a systems perspective. By scrutinizing a range of definitions and literature, we seek to establish an ‘emergence perspective’ from a systems viewpoint. Fourth, we examine the implications of emergence for design, execution, and development of SoS. The focus of this examination is targeted to developing a set of practitioner guidance through introduction of several emergence strategies. Fifth, we explore three different application scenarios to suggest the relevance of enacting emergence strategies in the context of SoS.