Sources for Emergence and Development of System of Systems
This chapter examines a biology-inspired model, with extension, to explain man-made systems evolution and emergence within a system-of-systems (SoS). The definitions of emergence allow for both planned emergent properties and future, unplanned emergent properties. System engineers deal with planned emergent properties regularly when they realize system-level requirements of a complex system. For example, in the design of an aircraft, a primary requirement might be range in order to successfully fly from point A to point B. This property is emergent due to the fact that the ability to fly over a particular distance cannot be assigned to any particular subcomponent of the aircraft, such as the wing, engine, landing gear, radar, pilot, etc.