Residual Deterrence in Europe
Europe's NATO members have diverse positions on nuclear weapons. The UK commits all its forces to the Alliance's integrated military structure. France, while moving closer to this structure in 1996, does not participate in the collective nuclear-planning and consultation process. Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are believed to host US nuclear weapons; Denmark and Norway decided in 1957 that they would not do SO.3 Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain have similar policies.