chapter  III
29 Pages


Until the middle of the fifth century this title belonged to anyone born of an Athenian father. But in 451-0 Pericles ordained tha t to be regarded as an Athenian a man must have both an Athenian mother and an Athenian father: 1 children born of a foreign mother (fitjTpo^evoi) were henceforth in public law " bastards " (v60oi). The privilege of citizenship might be won, and likewise lost, in exceptional cases: it was granted by decree of the people for outstanding services; it could be withdrawn by atimia or civic degradation, either provisionally or permanently.