chapter  2
39 Pages

Science and philosophy

PHILOSOPHY takes up a rational position to the whole of reality. We use the term "rational" to contrast philosophy with purely practical or affective positions or again with beliefs Silllply accepted without a reflective elaboration: a pure morality, a faith, etc. The concept "the whole of reality" involves three components. Firstly, it refers to the whole of the higher activities of man and not exclusively to knowledge: moral, aesthetic, faith (religious or humanist), etc. Secondly, from the point of view of knowledge, it implies the possibility that, underlying phenomenal appearance and individual knowledge, there exists an ultimate reality, a thing in itself, an absolute, etc. Thirdly, that a reflection on the whole of reality can give an insight into the realm of possibility (Leibniz, Renouvier, etc.).