chapter
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Social and Physical Planning

T O define national planning more in detail we must differentiate between social and physical planning. Physical planning does not consist of problems directly related to land and water only, but includes aspects of agriculture and industry, transportation and communications and many others. Important as they are, they are not an end in themselves, for human values and human resources are more significant. Social planning, i.e. the activation and integration of these values, has, therefore, to provide for all those services which affect, more or less directly, the well-being of the masses. Among them are educational and health services, recreational facilities, all of them essential for raising the standard of living. It follows that, if we recognise the primacy of social planning, physical planning in its broadest sense must take its direction from the sphere of man and the needs of man as a gregarious being. Both kinds of planning are complement ary ; and both must be kept within the limits of reality which they should neither force nor displace but help to clarify in the orbit of things as well as of people.