chapter  4
THE PENAL POLICY OF SOCIAL DEFENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON CONTEMPORARY SYSTEMS
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AFTEROUTLININGfirsttheoriginsofthesocialdefencemovement andthenthemainstagesofitsevolution,wemustplaceitinan accurateperspectivefrombothapositiveandanegativestandpoint.However,itwouldbedesirablefurthertoclarifyafew pointsconcerningthepracticalconsequencesofcontemporary developments.Thisdoesnot,forthemoment,involveexamining thepenalpolicyofsocialdefenceassuch,butofdeterminingfrom outside,sotospeak,thatpolicy'sgeneraleffectonthedifferent systemsofreactionagainstcrimethatareatpresentinforce.But beforeembarkingonthisrapidcomparativestudy,wemust definethepenalpolicyofsocialdefenceasittakesshapeinthe finalstageofitsdevelopment:onlythroughsuchadefinition, eventhoughitbeprovisional,canweunderstandtheeffectofthe movementoncontemporarypenalsystems.Thischapterwill examinethesetwopointsintum.