chapter  VIII
Pages 14

I 14 entered upon its career without the benefit of the long intellectual incubation through which the ideas of the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Italian Risorgimento, the German Reich, the democratization of the British electorate, and similar large-scale changes in modern civilization passed before they issued . . . as political or social realities. 1

Under modern conditions all mankind are increasingly members pne of another. What is done in one place affects the course of events far off in all directions. National policies, economic trends, movements of ideas, quidquid agunt homines-all are in constant interplay throughout the world, transcending all barriers, however much individuals or groups may strive to pursue their own interests in isolation. 2

Isolationism is indeed moribund or dead ; and those who attempt to practise it are living in a fool's paradise which is an antechamber to a madman's hell. Independent action exposes a nation to-day to war, pestilence, and famine which have their origin in the distant corners of the earth : an economic depression in one country affects the lives of men and women ten thousand miles away : the free exchange of ideas is as necessary for the welfare, if not for the survival of mankind, as the free exchange

of goods : science and the development of transport and communications have contracted the stage on which we play our mortal parts : the growth of social and political institutions among one people will cast a baleful shadow or a beneficent shade over the lives of millions who have no responsibility for them: and a violent ideology, conceived in the crazy brain of a lunatic in Berlin, disturbs the lives and determines the fortunes of the toiling masses in Chicago. To take but a single instance, the structure, the aims, and the content of education in one country are very much the concern of all other countries : the bitter experience of recent years has taught us that we can be indifferent neither to the form of government nor to the educational processes of neighbouring powers. This fact of interdependence is of paramount importance, and it would be preposterous if education did not take full account of it. We " must show a child the world as it really is", said Locke, "before he comes wholly into it " : and the world as it really is to-day is the world as a single whole. There is a large body of factual knowledge here which is proper material for teaching : we have not studied it as thoroughly or presented it as forcibly in schools as we should, and there is need for a marked change of emphasis in our selection and in ·our presentation of our lessons. But the teaching of facts is not enough. There is a conception of world citizenship which we must inculcate. Let us be clear what this means, for there is much confused thinking on the subject. " Citizenship" can be used in two senses, in a political sense and in a general sense. In the first it indicates a legal or constitu-

. tiona! status, and describes the affiliation between the individual and the government of his country. In this sense there is no such thing to-day as world citizenship : the federal systems of the United States of America or of the Soviet Union or of the British Commonwealth of Nations are the nearest approaches to it, and we may look forward to the day when a complete world federation with a common citizenship will be created. In the meantime we must think of world citizenship in the more general

Sincere and well-informed patriots of the nations of the world now recognize that the security of national groups, their right to self-government, the enrichment of their own cultures, a,nd adequate standards of living, can be realized only through international co-operation and organization powerful enough to maintain world peace and facilitate world-wide economic co-operation. World-citizenship does not inean either the sacrifice of national culture or national citizenship or the subordination of one cultural or ethnic group to another. In fact, good national· citizenship and good world citizenship will reinforce one another, once all nations give up the ideas of foreign conquest and racial superiority.2