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Park and Burgess take a con~istent sociological pOSItIon on inlitation. They do not, of course, accept an instinct theory. They provide a very valuable emphasis, which has been follo''''ecl by luany authors, on inlitation as conscious COpyil1g. They \vrite, " In imitation attentioll is alert, now on the copy and no,,,, on the response" (1924, p. 346). Imitative activity tends to reproduce the copy. They do not attempt to suggest a psychological theory of the prillciples of imitatioll or to outline the social circumstances under ,,,,hich it is learned. Reuter and Hart apparently follow Park and Burgess in their emphasis. They ''''rite: "Imitation is the more or less conscious and intentional reproductioll of copy. It is the luechanism of the learning process" (1933, p. 27 I). This is a strange inversion of emphasis. 'Vhat needs to be explained is ho'''' copying is learned before one can consider the question of ho'''' one learns by copying-though it is a fact that copying can become an acquired drive and thus impel independent learning. Boring, Langfeld, and 'Veld hold approximately the same vie''''P0int as do the foregoing pairs of authors. They vvrite: "Imitation in this case is merely the first stage of learning. Imitation is the conscious or unconscious attelupt of an individual to reproduce in his thought or behaviour the same pattern of thought or behaviour that he has perceived in another individual" (1939, pp. 12-13).1 They beg the entire questioll by indicating that imitation is " the first stage of learning ". They have no account of 110W imitative behaviour is

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and pay no particular attention to the social conditions under \vhich such learning takes place. vVe agree (see Chapter XII) that it is correct to say that people can learn by imitation, but we think that in order to make this statement significant, one must analyse the circumstances under \vhich the units of copying behaviour are themselves learned.