chapter  XIII
STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGY
Pages 11

Histreatmentofcognitivefunctionswastheleastinspired ofhiscontributions,andtheonefromwhichwederiveleast thatisoriginal;wecanpassoveritwiththestatementthat theexperimentalmethodsandresultsofexaminationinto sensoryfunctionswereacceptedandsympatheticallytreated. Thestudyoffeelingandwillingaremoresignificant.Hoffdinggavedescriptionsofcomplexaffectiveprocessessuchas thoserelatingtoreligionandethics,butgavetheminterms ofphysiologicalaswellasofintrospectivepsychology.These complexprocesseswereapproachedgenetically.Histreatmentofthewillwasquiteoriginal.Superficiallyitseems basedonWundt'sconceptofthewill;butthereisanimportantdifference.Wundt,takinganevolutionaryviewpoint, hadmadethewillacentralandprimordialreality;but inhishandsithadneverthelesssufferedtheinevitablefateof reductiontoaseriesoffeelings.Hemadethewillastructuralconcept,aconcepttobeunderstoodonlywhenmore elementaryconstituentshadbeenclassified.WithHoffding, however,wefindthatthewillcannotbeanalysedintomore elementaryformsofexperience.Thewillis,infact,an elementaryandultimatewayofacting.Hoffdingundertook togobacktothebeginningsofthewill,asshowninthestudy oftheevolutionaryseries,beginningwiththelowestorganisms.Will,asamodeofaction,mayshowitselffirstin simpleapproachingorwithdrawing,becomingmoreandmore complexasthesituationsarousingitaremoreandmore complex.Thegeneticapproachappearsalsointhestudy

A compromise between these two positions has been offered by Washburn. She suggests that "consciousness accompanies a certain ratio of excitation to inhibition in a motor discharge .... If the amount of excitation either sinks below a certain minimum or rises above a certain maximum, consciousness is lessened. . . . The kind of consciousness which we call an 'image' or 'centrally excited sensation,' such as remembered or imagined sensation, also depends on the simultaneous excitation and inhibition of a motor pathway. The' association of ideas ' depends on the fact that when the full motor response to a stimulus is prevented from occurring, a weakened type of response may take place which we shall call ' tentative movement' ." 2 From such conceptions, Washburn has built up a "motor psychology," which while making abundant use of introspective material, 8 is of a consistently dynamic character.