Cannon I was the fust to apply this neurological fact to criticism of the James-Lange theory. After proving experimentally that practically identical visceral changes did, in fact, occur during "rage ", "pain ", and "Tear " responses of animal subjects, Cannon pointed out that the conscious qualities differentiating these "major emotions " could not possibly depend upon sensory differences which did not exist. Cannon concluded, as had Sherrington, Goltz, and others, that emotional "response is a pattern reaction . . . in which impulses flash through peculiarly co-operating neuron groups of the central nervous system , suddenly, unexpectedly, and in a manner not exactly reproducable by volition..."