chapter  VIII
The Early History of Li-Yul (Khoten)
Pages 19

THE country called in Tibetan works Li-y~tl has been diversely identified by Orientalists. Csoma takes it to be "a part of the Mongols' country;" Schiefner (Tib. Lebens Qa7cyam., p. 327,1 and Taranatha, p. 78) thinks that it was the Na-kie of Fah-Hien, Vakula of the Buddhist works; Wassilieff (Buddh., p. 74) says that it was " the Buddhist countries north of Tibet, and particularly IChoten;" Sarat Chandra Das (J. B. A. S., vol. i. p. 223) says, "Li-yul is identified with Nepal by the translators of Kahgyur. I have been able to ascertain that the ancient name of Nepal was Li-yul." 2

The following pages will superabundantly demonstrate, I think, that Wassilieff's opinion is correct, and that by Li-yul we must understand Eastern Turkestan, or that region surrounded by the Kuen-Iun, the Tung-lin, and the Thien-chan mountains, but more especially Khoten,

The Tibetan name of Li-yul admits of no other translation than "country of Li," 3 which one might be inclined to compare with the modern Chinese name for Khoten, Ilichi. As to " Khoten," it is (as Abel Remusat has pointed out) a corrupt form of the Sanskrit Kusthana, the name of the first sovereign of Li, and which was after-

wards applied to the country. The same remark holds good for the Chinese Yu-thien.