chapter  V
History of the Church During the Hundred and the Years Which Followed the Buddha's Death.
Pages 33

THE following account of the councils of Rajagriha and Vaisali, and of 'the spread of Buddhism in Kachmere, is taken from the eleventh volume of the Dulva, and is the only canonical version of these events to be met with in Tibetan works. Before giving an analysis of these passages, I must call attention to the difficulties which the text presents. These difficulties are so real that a learned Tibetan lama from the monastery of Snar-Thang, near Tachilunpo, has said of this volume that" this translation is not felicitous; it is full of obsolete expressions, is badly written, and in the latter part of the volume the correc.. tors' minds appear tired and their other faculties worn out; and all this is a source of much incertitude."! The translators of this volume were the well-known Indian pundits Vidyakaraprabha 2 and Dharmacriprabha,

Mahakagyapa, whom we have seen (p. 144) acknowledged as the head of the order on account of, his wisdom and virtues, heard, after the death of the Buddha, people remark that whereas 80,000 bhikshus had died at the same time as yariputra, 70,000 on Maudgalyayana's death, and 18,000 more when the Buddha had died, the words of the Blessed One had vanished like smoke; and that as all the mighty bhikshus had utterly passed away, the Sfitranta, the Vinaya, and the Matrika of the Blessed One were no longer taught. When he heard people thus censuring,

blaming, and slandering (£. 652), he told what he had heard to the bhikshus, and concluded by saying that they must assemble in that place 1 (i.e., at Kusinfnft). The bhikshus assented to his proposition. "Who shall convoke the clergy?" "Let it be the venerable Puma." Then the venerable Mahakftcyapa said to the venerable Puma, " Puma, strike the ganta and assemble the bhikshus ;" and Puma consented; and after having entered into the state of abstraction of the fourth dhyana of perfect freedom, and having acquired the sight of knowledge, he arose and commenced striking the ganta, Then from all parts assembled the congregation of bhikshuss (among whom were) five hundred arhats. When these were assembled Mahakagyapa said to them, "Venerable sirs, what member, of the congregation of bhikshus has not come?" and they discovered that the venerable Gavampati was not there. Now at that time Gavampati was in the hermitage of the girigaka tree (shing slii-ri-sha-kai. qdeal-med khangstong). Then ICagyapa said to Puma, "Go, Puma" (f. 654), "to where Gavampati is, and tell him, 'I(agyapa and all the other members of the sangha greet you, and request that you will come to them in all haste for business of the order." The venerable Puma consented; so he leftKusinftrfl and transported himself to the hermitage of the ciricaka tree, and having bowed down at Gavampati's feet, he 'delivered Kacyapa's message. Then Gavampati considered within himself what could be the matter, and when he discovered that "the lamp of wisdom had been blown out by the wind of impermanency," that the Blessed One had passed away (f. 655), he told Purna that he could