2. The USA: Industrialization on a Primary Commodity Base
A special word must be said about education. The German states were among the first in Europe to introduced compulsory education, though their reasons were the creation of an obedient, god-fearing rather than an economically efficient population. Aided by compulsory military service, German workers were found to be well disciplined and well prepared to acquire industrial skills when the time came. Morever, the German university ideal with its emphasis on research turned out to be an excellent aid to "high-tech" industries, such as chemicals and electrical engineering in the later nineteenth century (Landes 1969).