In the late 1960s America was a country at unease with itself. In 1965 peace protesters organized the ﬁrst concerted demonstrations against the Vietnam War. By 1968 opinion polls showed that the majority of Americans were against the conﬂict. Racial confrontations spread outside the South. In the ‘ﬁve long hot summers’ of 1964-8 there were serious urban disorders in some 200 American cities, most of which were in the North or on the West Coast.