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TIlE 'AGE OF HEROES AND GODS .319 volvesa strong tendency toward individual industry, and of' power over the native population. Thus, the and.m ore deci'siv,e as regards class distinc- at any rate attain to an independenti nfluence in public r ights;

TIlE 'AGE OF HEROES AND GODS .319 the. immigrant tribe. The individual, however, vies with his tribal associates for the' possession of the territory, and the new agricultural' conditions connected with the introduction of cattle and of the plough· favour division of the land. In addition to the superior ability. of an immigrant race, it is its superior civilization that assures to it the supremacy over the' native races. This superior civilization, however, involvesa strong tendency toward individual industry, and thus toward the differentiation of personal property from common property. The success which the individual owner enjoys in his labour develops in him a consciousness of freedom, and this leads him to compete with· his tribal associates both in the acquisition of property and in the attainment of' power over the native population. Thus, the division of common property is succeeded by an inequality of personal property-an inequality: which, from the very beginning, shows an unconquerable tendency to increase. This tendency is fostered by the fact that political organizationmak'es 'it possible for. individuals to exercise a certain control over common affairs. Property considerations become more and. more deci'siv,e as regards class distinctions. . In addition to descent from privileged 'ancestors, .it is property, that gives the individual his social position. An individual belonging to a people that at one time formed a class without rights, may rise to the ranks of the privileged classes, or, if the significance attached to birth continues to be maintained, he, together with those like him, may at any rate attain to an independent influence in public life. Prop'erty, however,' not only affords increased rights; it also entails greater obligations. The wealthy possess a better military equipment, and are therefore enlisted in the more efficient, but also the more dangerous, divisions of the army. They are entrusted with leadership in war as well as with authority in times of peace. Individual initiative makes itself felt, and this, coupled with the opportunity for the exercise of such initiative, causes political development to appear, from an external point 'of view, as a series of separate voluntary acts on the part of individual personal