chapter  IV
Pages 11

THE reasons for obtaining the revenue from one kind of tax rather than from some other kind, or by some other method, are often labelled principles, maxims, or canons, but not infrequently the main reason is expediency. Nevertheless, these principles are never absent altogether, and they are often very important, so that a fairly full exposition of them is necessary. General principles both of taxation and the collection of taxes will be explained mainly with reference to customs and excise duties, but distortion would result if these taxes were not compared with other taxes and with taxation in general. Taxation also has other objects besides revenue, and these are becoming more and more important in recent times; for this reason any discussion must always bear in mind subsidies, quotas, and similar methods used instead for these objects.