The Shift from Federal Aid
GRANTS OF land to aid in the development of educational institutions and improved transportation constitute the main exception to a general tendency on the part of the Federal government to play a declining promotional role as we approach the Civil War. During Jackson's administrations government took a definitive stand against the use of Federal funds for new internal improvements projects, turned over the completed portions of the National Road to the four states in which they lay, refused to extend the life of the Second Bank, and moved in the direction of lower tariffs. In the main, advances to the makers of small-arms ceased after 1830. The Treasury Department was formally separated from the banking system under Van Buren; in 1846 and again in 1857 tariff rates were substantially lowered; and in 1858 the program of subsidies for steamships came to an end.