chapter  1
15 Pages

An Emergent Matrix of Citizenship: Complex, Uneven, and Fluid

A surge of interest in the theory and parameters of citizenship reflects the impact of a series of recent trends: globalisation, migration, identity politics, regionalism, humanitarian intervention, and human rights. The relative clarity of a statist framing of world order focused inquiries about citizenship mainly on the evolution of state/society relations within the Euro/American context of liberal democracy and particularly on the gradual expansion of the identities and rights of individuals who could claim the status of citizen within a particular nation-state. In general terms, most influentially specified by T. H. Marshall, this evolutionary path led from elemental civil rights (in the sense of restraints on governmental abuse) to political rights (of a participatory character in the collective life of a society) and on to social rights (of a character that ensured basic human needs would be addressed by safety nets and state subsidies to the extent necessary).