Parks and boundless space
To impark an area of land is to enclose it with a barrier, which may be permeable or semipermeable (Figure 1). When homo sapiens first erected a fence to protect an area of land, the world’s first park was made. Outside was danger; inside was safety: for children, crops and domest icated animals. Later, when communities erected more extensive barriers to protect groups of families, the first settlements came into existence. Kings then began to think about private parks for their families. When grand cities came to be planned, spatial ideas were often developed in the rulers’ parks and passed through to the streets and spaces of the cities in which their dictat ran. This practice no longer operates because, in modern states, rulers are shy of conspicuous consumption. Park planning, however, remains a crucial aspect of city planning.