In this book I will focus my attention on the semiotic implications of the literary legacy that Kumarajlva, Paramartha and Xuanzang have left with us. The three great translators saw themselves as Mahayanists, but they were also specialists in the Hmayana Buddhist doctrines.1 Kumarajlva began his religious career as a stu dent of Abhidharma long before he studied Prajnaparamita and Madhyamaka. Paramartha was the first to introduce systematically to China the Vijnanavada branch of the Mahayana system, but he was also the first to translate Vasubhandu IP Abhidharmakosabhdsya into Chinese. Xuanzang was the most prolific translator of the Prajnaparamita and Vijnanavada literature, but he was just as pro ductive in his translations of the Abhidharma texts. Each of these three translators has left with us a sizeable collection of texts that belong to the Hmayana Buddhist tradition.