Understanding the New Order
This chapter reviews the alternative approaches that scholars have used to explain the New Order's economic policy decisions. It focuses on four main sets of approaches: 'behaviouralist' approaches, 'state interests' approaches, 'post-statist' approaches, and 'class- based' approaches. The chapter describes 'behaviouralist' approaches on the grounds that they divest the New Order of its economic and social dimensions and post- statist approaches on the grounds that they ignore the structural power of capital. It attempts by class-based and state interests theorists to develop exclusive instrumentalist, structuralist or state-centred analyses of the New Order. In addition to emasculating the political parties, the New Order also established a series of closely monitored corporatist organisations for various class and interest-based groups within Indonesian society. The strength of the instrumentalist approach is that it reveals the way in which some capitalists were able to exert direct control over the policy- making process in New Order Indonesia.