Modern Nigeria was created by Letters Patent and Order in Council issued January 1, 1914, which provided for the mergerof the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria with Northern Nigeria into a single administrative unit under the authority of Sir Frederick Lugard, who assumed the title of Governor General. The primitive character of many of the peoples of Southern Nigeria, together with the lack of knowledge concerning the political and social structure of many of the tribes, demanded careful anthropological studies before the introduction of indirect rule could be attempted. Nigeria was stripped of troops for service in the Cameroons and East Africa, so a native uprising would have been a serious matter. The country was difficult to traverse, and the native troops from Northern Nigeria suffered severely from the effects of the climate and the attacks of insects. The post-war enthusiasm for self-determination made little impression on Nigeria.