From the analysis contained in Chapters 12-18, and the relevant discussions at the Abuja Conference, a number of conclusions emerge. First and foremost among these, perhaps, is that Africans must look inside themselves and their history to rediscover the mainsprings of positive traditional values and knowledge to transform and sustain their society. The appreciation of history is important since the current crisis is but an intensification of a long and multi-form process of structural maladjustment. Second, clear objectives and priorities must be set in all the interconnected fields of endeavour: political, social, cultural, scientific, technological and economic. Third, the political dimension should be carefully examined in order to understand the constraints and to work out strategies to overcome them. Peace, security and stability are essential pre-conditions for the economic development of the continent as is the mass mobilisation of people in economic and political activities and institutions. Thus, internally within each state, there should be democratization of the development process, the elimination of political subordination, either on grounds of sex, ethnicity or race (as in apartheid South Africa), popular participation, social justice and accountability in the use of power. There must be an organic relation between the state and the society, and a conducive social climate must be created for structural change and economic development.