This Chapter starts with the recognition that globally the development strategies implemented in Africa since independence have neither aimed at achieving the priority task of an agricultural revolution, nor really aimed at any significant industrialization; basically, they extended the colonial pattern of integration in the world capitalist system. The catastrophic results are now obvious. Moreover, the Western inspired policies of so-called 'readjustment' to the new conditions created by the global crisis (through IMF and World Bank recipes) would only worsen the case. Hence, another development, fundamentally based on a popular alliance, is the only acceptable alternative. The priority target of achieving an agricultural revolution requires, for sure, industrialization. But the pattern of industrialization would have to be quite different from the conventional one. This Chapter tries to show in which respects this pattern of needed industrialization presupposes some fonn of 'delinking' from the system governing the global economic expansion of capitalism. The national and popular content of development, in its tum, can hardly be imagined if no significant change is considered in the direction of a democratization of the society, allowing for an autonomous expression of the various social forces and creating the basis for a real civil society. Simultaneously, the weakness of African states, to which reference is made in the Chapter, calls for co-operation and unity without which any national and popular attempt would remain extremely limited and vulnerable.