The Emergence of Soviet Military Strategy (1921-1935)
The Soviet Union emerged from the Civil War united under Lenin's Bolshevik Party, but faced serious problems associated with reconstructing national institutions. The Communist Party had to consolidate its political power, build state governmental institutions, restore the economic viability of the new Soviet Union, and overcome the state's technological backwardness, which placed her at a marked disadvantage in comparison with more highly industrialized Western nations. Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) supplanted the harsh repressive wartime policy of "War Communism" with a new system incorporating vestiges of capitalist practices. Nevertheless, the state "seized the commanding heights of industry" as a step on the march toward full Socialism. The New Economic Policy was designed to restore Soviet economic strength by providing for economic growth and a modicum of social peace. Throughout the early and mid-1920s, it created an atmosphere conducive for the ruling Communist Party to address successfully all facets of national reconstruction, one of the most important of which was the question of what sort of military establishment should the Soviet Union possess.